Answered By: ask crisslibrary Last Updated: May 06, 2015 Views: 8
Are you using APA? I'll be answering assuming APA, but if I was mistaken, please write back and we can try again. And if you haven't used it before, I find the Purdue OWL very helpful in answering citation questions: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
1) For using "et al." versus "and": for two authors, use & (e.g., Ball & Cohen, 1999); for three to five authors, use commas and & (e.g., Singer, Catapano, & Huisman, 2010) for the first citation, and for subsequent citations use "et al." (e.g., Singer et al., 2010); for six or more authors, use "et al."
2) You're referencing Ball & Cohen's words/ideas from Zeichner's text, is that correct? In that case, for your in-text citation you could say, "Ball and Cohen argued that...(as cited in Zeichner, 2012, p. 100) and you would include only the Zeichner work in your reference list. Alternatively, you could find a copy of the Ball & Cohen source and cite them directly (in which case you would of course include them in your reference list.)
The way you have listed it in your original question to me implies that you are looking at two different sources. I don't think you would need to list Ball & Cohen as an in-text citation unless you are quoting from their text. Anything that appears as an in-text citation should be on your works cited page.
3) When you need to include two or more works in the same parentheses, separate them with a semi-colon, and order them the same way they will appear in the reference list. I didn't see any documentation that indicated that there is a limit to the number of works per parentheses. The documentation I looked at indicated that the works are only separated by a semi-colon, not an ampersand. I'm not sure about using "e.g.". I don't believe I have seen it, but that doesn't mean that it's not correct. If you have an example of a successful use of "e.g." in front of you in the correct citation style, you may be able to use it as a guide for your own paper. To be sure, you could check with your instructor.
4) If you use a direct quote, you only need to cite the work from which the quote was taken.
I hope this helps!
Social Sciences Librarian
In person: Make an appointment with a Research Librarian.